International Conventions

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
The CBD’s objective (1992) is to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. The mission of the latest implementation plan of the CBD is to "take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity in order to ensure that by 2020 ecosystems are resilient and continue to provide essential services, thereby securing the planet's variety of life, and contributing to human well-being, and poverty eradication".

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Adopted in 1992, the UNFCCC establishes an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenges posed by climate change. It objective is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. UNFCCC is the first binding international legal instrument to address the CV&C issue.

The UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
The objective of this Convention is to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa, through effective action at all levels. It is the only internationally legally binding framework set up to address the problem of desertification.

The Ramsar Convention
According to Ramsar Convention (1971), the Parties must implement a set of measures to ensure that the ecological character of Ramsar Sites is preserved. Specific management plans should be adopted, with appropriate support and funds for implementation and including a monitoring program with indicators.